About COMBAT
— The research project

The COMBAT project addresses the relation between public policies and anti-discrimination/human rights legal frameworks that protect against discrimination on the grounds of race, ethnic origin, colour or nationality in Portugal. The project addresses a key research question: how institutional racism is being tackled or silenced in current public policy-making and anti-discrimination legal provision with a focus on two key areas: education and housing.

Through an analysis of the past and present of the struggles against racism in Portugal and the wider European context, this project proposes a sociological understanding of the main issues currently raised in this area, such as the permeability of institutions to racial discrimination; the absence of a sound public debate on racism that engages with grassroots movements and associations; the under-reporting of racist crime and discrimination to the competent bodies; the tendency to consider racism just as isolated events and not as integrated within institutional practices and arrangements.

The project aims to address and engage in dialogue with: policy makers; legal experts; immigrant and anti-racist NGOs and associations; grassroots movements, journalists; academics.


Keywords:
Institutional racism; Anti-discrimination law; European Union; public policies; human rights

Duration: 36 months (1 June 2016 – 31 May 2019)

Funding: Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology – FCT and co-funded by the European Fund for Regional Development (FEDER) through the COMPETE 2020 operational program – PTDC/IVC-SOC/1209/2014 – POCI-01-0145-FEDER-016806.

 

About COMBAT
— The research project

The COMBAT project addresses the relation between public policies and anti-discrimination/human rights legal frameworks that protect against discrimination on the grounds of race, ethnic origin, colour or nationality in Portugal. The project addresses a key research question: how institutional racism is being tackled or silenced in current public policy-making and anti-discrimination legal provision with a focus on two key areas: education and housing.

Through an analysis of the past and present of the struggles against racism in Portugal and the wider European context, this project proposes a sociological understanding of the main issues currently raised in this area, such as the permeability of institutions to racial discrimination; the absence of a sound public debate on racism that engages with grassroots movements and associations; the under-reporting of racist crime and discrimination to the competent bodies; the tendency to consider racism just as isolated events and not as integrated within institutional practices and arrangements.

The project aims to address and engage in dialogue with: policy makers; legal experts; immigrant and anti-racist NGOs and associations; grassroots movements, journalists; academics.


Keywords:
Institutional racism; Anti-discrimination law; European Union; public policies; human rights

Duration: 36 months (1 June 2016 – 31 May 2019)

Funding: Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology – FCT and co-funded by the European Fund for Regional Development (FEDER) through the COMPETE 2020 operational program – PTDC/IVC-SOC/1209/2014 – POCI-01-0145-FEDER-016806.

 

About COMBAT
— Key objectives
  • to advance the prevailing state of the art in the field of institutional racism and more specifically, in the relation between coloniality, integration policies and the law;
     
  • to examine the implementation and effects of national legislation, EU Directives and key European Conventions (e.g. the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities) in the Portuguese legal system, and the main challenges detected in monitoring and reporting activities on the Portuguese context;
     
  • to map complaints and development of case-law since 2000 in Portugal, with a focus on the work of the Portuguese equality body, the Commission for Equality and Against Racial Discrimination;
     
  • case-study research of complaints of racial discrimination that have constituted an administrative offence procedure or a criminal offence;
     
  • case-study research of collective complaints concerning the violation of fundamental rights of the minoritised/racialised population.
About COMBAT
— Research contexts, development and analysis

COMBAT carries out empirical research within the institutional and legal frameworks of the Portuguese State, the EU and other international legal provisions, with a focus on the development and implementation of public policies for integration and anti-discrimination/human rights law.

Key research contexts:

i) Public bodies and institutions such as equality bodies, general-inspectorates and directorates-general;
 

ii) NGOs and associations that support victims of racial discrimination and develop legal advocacy;
 

iii) (Inter-)national judicial institutions;
 

iv) the media (the press and TV networks) and social networks;
 

COMBAT will identify and analyse the trajectories of complaints and the role of public bodies and grassroots organisations in paradigmatic cases in two key life-spheres: education and housing. Cases will cover school segregation, segregation in housing policies and police brutality in Portugal. Research will foreground the role of anti-racist and legal advocacy organisations in supporting victims, joining administrative procedures and representing complainants. The team will also examine how the media has framed the cases under study: what is newsworthy and what is the understanding of racism and discrimination conveyed in the news. 
 

About COMBAT
— Flyer
People
— Team
People
— Team
People
— Consultants

Bruno Gonçalves (SOS Racismo / ROMED – Mediation for Roma)

Gavan Titley (National University of Ireland, Maynooth)

Katy Sian (University of York)

Mamadou Ba (SOS Racismo)

S. Sayyid (University of Leeds)

Events
Seminar
February 28, 2020, 11h00, Museum of Aljube Resistance and Freedom (Lisbon)
Internacional Workshop
July 1 to 3, 2019, 09h00-18h00, Braço de Prata Factory (Lisboa)
CES Summer School
September 3 to 8, 2018, Room 2, CES | Alta (Coimbra, PT)
Advanced Training Course
April 12 to 14, 2018, CES | Lisboa & Fundação José Saramago (Lisbon)
CES Summer School
September 3 to 9, 2017, Rooms 1 and 2, CES-Coimbra
Publications
— COMBAT working papers

 


 

Europe and the narrative of the ‘true racist’:
thinking anti-discrimination law through race 

Realojar, despejar, guetizar. Arqueologias de uma violência obliterada:
habitação e racismo nos relatórios nacionais/internacionais

 

Publications
— COMBAT working papers

 


 

Europe and the narrative of the ‘true racist’:
thinking anti-discrimination law through race 

Realojar, despejar, guetizar. Arqueologias de uma violência obliterada:
habitação e racismo nos relatórios nacionais/internacionais

 

Publications
— COMBAT publications

Available soon.

Publications
— Previous publications by the team

Almeida, Pedro (2012) ‘Futebol, racismo e eurocentrismo. Os média portugueses na cobertura do Campeonato Mundial de Futebol na África do Sul’, Revista Crítica das Ciências Sociais, 98, 103-123.
 

Alves, Ana Rita (2016) ‘(Pré)Textos e Contextos: Media, Periferia e Racialização’, Revista de Ciências Sociais Política & Trabalho, 44, 91-107.
 

Araújo, Marta (2013) ‘Challenging Narratives on Diversity and Immigration in Portugal’, in Philip Kretsedemas; Jorge Capetillo-Ponce; Glenn Jacobs (eds.), Migrant Marginality: a Transnational Perspective. New York/London: Routledge, 27-46.
 

Araújo, Marta (2016) ‘A very “prudent integration”: white flight, school segregation and the depoliticization of (anti)racism’, Race, Ethnicity and Education, 19(2), 300-323 (Published online: 12 Nov 2014).
 

Maeso, Silvia Rodríguez; Araújo, Marta (2013) ‘A quadratura do círculo: (anti)racismo, imigração e a(s) política(s) da integração em Portugal nos anos 2000’, Oficina do CES, 407.
 

Maeso, Silvia; Araújo, Marta (2014) ‘The Politics of (Anti-)Racism. Academic Research and Policy Discourse in Europe’, in Wulf D. Hund, Alana Lentin (org.), Racism and Sociology. Berlin: Lit Verlag, pp. 207-237.
 

Maeso, Silvia & Cavia, Beatriz (2014) ‘Esquivando el racismo: el paradigma de la “integración” en las sociedades europeas y vasca contemporáneas’, in Ignacio Irazutza e María Martínez (org.), De la Identidad a la Vulnerabilidad. Alteridad e integración en el País Vasco contemporáneo. Barcelona: Edicions Bellaterra, pp. 151-194.
 

Maeso, Silvia (2015) ‘“Civilising” the Roma? The depoliticisation of (anti-)racism within the politics of integration’, Identities. Global Studies in Culture and Power, 22(1), 53-70.
 

Maeso, Silvia; Araujo, Marta (2017) ‘The (im)plausibility of racism in Europe: policy frameworks on discrimination and integration’. Patterns of Prejudice, 51(1), 26-50.
 

Maeso, Silvia; Araújo, Marta (2017), ‘The semantics of (anti-)racism in the governance of non-Europeanness: an introduction’, Patterns of Prejudice, 51, 1, 1-8.
 

Santos, Cecília MacDowell (2012) ‘Mobilização Transnacional do Direito e a Reconstrução dos Direitos Humanos’, in Cecília MacDowell dos Santos (org.), A Mobilização Transnacional do Direito: Portugal e o Tribunal Europeu dos Direitos Humanos. Coimbra: Edições Almedina, 13-27.

Media
2017-09-16   As Beiras
Aproximar o debate público de quem «vive» o racismo
2017-02-22   Público
O racismo deve ser punido com multas pesadas ou com penas de prisão?
Silvia Rodríguez Maeso
2017-02-01   Le Monde Diplomatique
Redesenhando a Periferia: Exclusões, Demolições e Racismo Institucional
Ana Rita Alves
2017-01-08   Siglo XXI/La Nueva España
«Las soluciones al racismo implican repensar nuestros privilegios»
Silvia Rodríguez Maeso
2016-12-11   Público [P2]
Bairro 6 de Maio | Este é o apocalipse dos «sem direito» a casa
Ana Rita Alves
Relevant Documents
— Legislation

European Convention on Human Rights (1950)
 

Council of Europe | European Social Charter (1961; revised in 1995)


UN International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (1965) 


Constitution of the Portuguese Republic (1976) | Article 13 (Principle of equality) Article 59 (Workers’ rights)


Penal Code – Portugal (1982) | Article 139 (Aggravated Murderer: if it is determined by racial, religious or political hatred), Article 239 (Genocide), Article 240 (Racial, religious or sexual discrimination)


Law No. 134/99 of August 28, on the Prohibition of Discrimination in the Exercise of Rights due to Motives based on Race, Colour, Nationality or Ethnic Origin. Establishes the Commission for Equality and Against Racial Discrimination. 


Decree-Law No. 111/2000 regulates Law No. 134/99, establishes, inter alia, the administrative authorities responsible for investigating administrative offenses, as well as the administrative authority that will impose fines and the corresponding sanctions for discriminatory acts.


Council Directive 2000/43/EC of June 29, 2000 implementing the principle of equal treatment between persons irrespective of racial or ethnic origin


Council Directive 2000/78/EC of November 27, 2000 establishing a general framework for equal treatment in employment and occupation


Law No. 18/2004 of May 11, Transposes to the Internal Legal System the EC Directive 2000/43/CE of June 29 implementing the principle of equal treatment between persons irrespective of racial or ethnic origin


Law No 7/2009 of February 12, Labour Code | Article 23 (Concepts of equality and non-discrimination) Article 24 (Right to equality in the access to employment and work) Article 25 (Prohibition of discrimination)


Law No. 3/2011 of February 15, Prohibits any Discrimination in Access to and the Exercise of Independent Work. Transposes Directive 2000/43/EC, Directive 2000/78/EC and Directive 2006/54/EC

 

Relevant Documents
— Legislation

European Convention on Human Rights (1950)
 

Council of Europe | European Social Charter (1961; revised in 1995)


UN International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (1965) 


Constitution of the Portuguese Republic (1976) | Article 13 (Principle of equality) Article 59 (Workers’ rights)


Penal Code – Portugal (1982) | Article 139 (Aggravated Murderer: if it is determined by racial, religious or political hatred), Article 239 (Genocide), Article 240 (Racial, religious or sexual discrimination)


Law No. 134/99 of August 28, on the Prohibition of Discrimination in the Exercise of Rights due to Motives based on Race, Colour, Nationality or Ethnic Origin. Establishes the Commission for Equality and Against Racial Discrimination. 


Decree-Law No. 111/2000 regulates Law No. 134/99, establishes, inter alia, the administrative authorities responsible for investigating administrative offenses, as well as the administrative authority that will impose fines and the corresponding sanctions for discriminatory acts.


Council Directive 2000/43/EC of June 29, 2000 implementing the principle of equal treatment between persons irrespective of racial or ethnic origin


Council Directive 2000/78/EC of November 27, 2000 establishing a general framework for equal treatment in employment and occupation


Law No. 18/2004 of May 11, Transposes to the Internal Legal System the EC Directive 2000/43/CE of June 29 implementing the principle of equal treatment between persons irrespective of racial or ethnic origin


Law No 7/2009 of February 12, Labour Code | Article 23 (Concepts of equality and non-discrimination) Article 24 (Right to equality in the access to employment and work) Article 25 (Prohibition of discrimination)


Law No. 3/2011 of February 15, Prohibits any Discrimination in Access to and the Exercise of Independent Work. Transposes Directive 2000/43/EC, Directive 2000/78/EC and Directive 2006/54/EC

 

Relevant Documents
— Case-Law

Available soon.